European door-to-door mobility workshop! 20th Sept, Madrid

Save the date: European door-to-door mobility workshop, next 20th September 2017, 10:00-16:00

Are you interested and/or doing research in the field of passenger transportation and European mobility? Are you interested and willing to improve current door-to-door passenger experience and metrics? Are we close to the 4 hour door-to-door European objective?  Come and join the free second workshop!

The event, hosted at Google Madrid Campus will mix active debate and participation from all the workshop attendees with presentations from top entities in the field: Innaxis, University of Westminster, Bauhaus-Luftfahrt, Eurocontrol, ACARE WG1, invited speakers, other mobility projects. Topics like passenger profiling, door-to-door models and metrics, transport demand and novel transport concepts will be tackled!

Event registration is free but with limited places available: do it here

Final agenda and logistic information to be attached to this page in the following days

see you next 20th Sept in Madrid!


Are regulatory and business changes aligned with key ATM objectives? (Introducing the Vista project).

How will different regulatory and business changes affect the KPIs of ATM stakeholders in the 2035 and 2050 horizon? Are the various foreseen changes aligned to obtain improvements in key indicators? Will trade-offs emerge from different policies to be implemented? What is the impact of technology changes on different economic developments?

Vista considers these questions and examines the effects of conflicting market forces on European performance in ATM, through the evaluation of impact metrics on four key stakeholders (airlines, passenger, airports and ANSPs), and the environment. The project comprises a systematic, impact trade-off analysis using classical and complexity metrics, encompassing both fully monetised and quasi-cost impact measures. Vista will model the current, 2035 and 2050 timeframes based on various factors and their potential evolution.

The factors modelled in Vista influence the stakeholders’ choices: prices of commodities and services, regulations from national and supranational entities, and new technologies are all part of a complex socio-economic system that results in evolving business models, passenger choices, etc. These factors are divided between regulatory and business factors. Business factors may affect technology uptake and economic changes. Regulations, on their turn, may act as enablers of the technological and operational changes, e.g., the Single European Sky regulatory framework, or may directly affect the performance of some stakeholders, such as air passenger rights.

The different factors considered have been obtained from a literature review of regulations, projects, technological and operational changes. Concerning the regulations, the different areas of the ATM network and regulations applying to them have been reviewed. Communications and strategies laid down by, or foreseen by, regulatory trends have been used to identify the possible evolution of these regulations. The main source for the business factors are the SESAR projects, in particular, the high-level goals of SESAR described in its Master Plan (Ed. 2015), as well as more precise information related to the SESAR workpackages. The expected impacts of operational sub-packages in SESAR will be used to identify the impact of these on the evolution of KPIs. Some more long-term R&D research activities are also considered, in particular to be used in the 2050 scenarios of Vista. Other business factors include the price of fuel, the business models of the airlines, and changes in demand linked to the socio-economic development of Europe. Regarding the latter, many factors will be considered as closely linked and the diverse possibilities of development will be significantly influenced by outputs such as the STATFOR forecasts.


In the Vista model, regulatory and business factors are classified between foreground and background factors. Background factors are grouped to generate background scenarios onto which the foreground factors will be tested. These background scenarios, identified below, define different possible evolutions for the 2035 and 2050 horizons and have been defined to identify the impact of the technology on different economic development scenarios.

Period Name Technology development Economic development
Current Current Current Current
2035 L35: Low economic, Low Techno Trajectory-based performance as defined in SESAR Low economic development
M35: High economic, Low Techno Medium economic development
H35: High economic, High Techno Performance-based performance as defined in SESAR
2050 L50: Low economic, Low Techno
M50: High economic, Low Techno High economic development with an increment on environmental-friendly passengers
H50: High economic, High Techno Enhanced performance-based performances as defined in SESAR

Examples of foreground factors, the impact of which will be individually assessed, include: regulatory changes on passenger provision schemes, fuel charges, or the introduction of smart ticketing. Foreground factors can also be grouped in higher-level categories to identify the impact of different policies on the scenarios: environmental mitigation policies (e.g., emission scheme and noise pollution regulation), regional infrastructure usage (e.g., airport access, regional infrastructure development), passenger focus modifications (e.g., passenger provision schemes and reacommodation tools) and Single European Sky (e.g., 4D trajectory management, traffic synchronisation, airspace charges). The qualitative impact of the factors, both foreground and background, on each part of the model has been identified.


Vista will necessarily model all ATM phases: strategic, pre-tactical and tactical. Factors will have different impacts on these time scales. The Vista model has been created following these temporal layers. A scenario, defined as an instantiation of foreground and background factors, will be executed by the model. The strategic layer, will use an economic model to balance the strategic demand and capacity of the different elements in the ATM network and schedules will be provided to the pre-tactical layer. The pre-tactical layer will generate flight plans, passenger itineraries and ATFM regulations. These flights and passenger itineraries will be executed tactically using the Mercury model <link to Mercury page>. Mercury model has been developed on previous projects (POEM <link to POEM page>, ComplexityCosts <link to CC page>) and allow the simulation of flights and passengers itineraries obtaining not only traditional flight-centric metric but also passengers focus ones. See our next blog <link to blog 3> for more information regarding Vista tactical layer. Being a stochastic model the output of the different layers will be consolidated to analyse the results and understand the horizontal and vertical trade-offs identified. Finally, a learning loop will be used to give feedback to the strategic layer on the metrics obtained and, based on the initial expectations of the model, to adjust strategic behaviour. This will ensure that, after several iterations, a stable and realistic realisation of the scenario is obtained.

In order to capture the impact of the different factors on the model and the evolution of the system, dedicated site visits and consultation with experts have been performed (see next blog entry for more details). The Vista approach and methodology was been presented at the 2017 World ATM Congress (7-9 March 2017, Madrid) and at the 2017 ART Workshop (26 April 2017, London).

Towards user-centric transport in Europe – Challenges, solutions and collaborations

The EU projects Mobility4EU ( and MIND-SETS ( jointly organized the event “Towards user-centric transport in Europe – Challenges, solutions and collaborations” in Brussels in May. The aim was to bring together stakeholders from different areas to discuss innovations in transport and mobility addressing future challenges for the European transport system ( One part of this event were several interactive sessions in which the participants discussed various issues relating to the improvement of current transport practices. The partners of DATASET2050 acted as facilitator of the session “Enhancing multi-modal collaboration between service providers”, in close collaboration with the EU project PASSME.

Applying the “World Café” approach, this session focused on the better integration of different service providers in order to facilitate a seamless journey for the passenger (see the figure below for examples of existing and future intermodal concepts, these will be addressed in more detail in upcoming deliverables of DATASET2050). Within different groups, simulating a round table in a relaxed atmosphere, participants of the workshop discussed a variety of approaches that reduce friction along the journey. One aspect which had been discussed extensively is the establishment of a legal framework accompanying the closer collaboration of service providers. Legal issues concern the liabilities in terms of delays, lost luggage or reimbursements. Furthermore, data sharing both between providers as well as between providers and passengers had been highlighted as being a main contributor to a seamless journey. Passengers receiving real-time information as well as alternative travel options along the journey have to be enabled by a shared data pool all providers have access to. This, however, requires a clearly defined set of rules and responsibilities regarding data handling and passenger privacy issues in order for all parties to participate. In terms of passengers’ data privacy concerns, studies have shown that passengers agree to share their personal data with service providers if both data security can be guaranteed and their journey and travel experience is improved.

In terms of collaboration, the “last mile”, which covers the distance between the final destination and the last stop of e.g. public transport, often constitutes a bottleneck within the seamless journey. Therefore, ideas within the workshop circled around passengers pooling their demand and sharing a taxi in order to get to the airport or the train station. Or autonomous cars providing an option to cover the last segment of the passenger journey by efficiently assigning resources to the time and location they are needed. Overall, participants argued that there is no single solution which fits all passenger needs but that customization and differentiation across distinct groups have to take place.


inter-modal conecepts


9292 /
Airbus /
Airportbus Munich /
Air-Rail /
Air-Train /
Ally /
Allygator /
Amtrak /
Bike Train Bike /
Blacklane /
Boring Company /
Bus and Fly /
Cabify /
Cambio /
Car2Go /
Chu Kong Shipping Enterprises /
Citybike /
Citymapper /
Clipper /
Cotai Waterjet /
Deutsche Bahn /
DriveNow /
Drivy /
Ehang /
Emmy /
Ferrara Bus & Fly /
Flinkster /
Flightcar /
Fraport /
Free2Move /
Gett /
GoEuro /
Hannovermobil /
Hyperloop One /
Iberia /
Kobe – Kansai Bay Shuttle /
Lyft /
Memobility /
MobilityMixx /
Moovel /
Mozio /
Mycicero /
Mydriver /
Network Rail /
Octopuscard /
Oystercard /
Rallybus /
Rome2Rio /
Stadtmobil /
Swiss Helicopter /
Tamyca /
Taiwan High Speed Rail /
Thalys /
Touch & Travel /
Turo /
Tuup /
Uber /
Union Station Denver /
Urbanpulse /
Velib /
Voom /
VW (Sedric) /
Wideroe /
Wmata /
Yugo /
Zee Aero /

On maps

How are “mobility” and trips visualized and represented? Well, the most direct, intuitive way of doing so, is using maps. Representations, converting the 3-dimensional earth (*sphere*) to a flat  2-dimensional surface. This post is about maps, map properties, map distortion and curious maps. We hope you enjoy it!

Mapping the earth, or parts of it, is a classic, well-studied problem. For hundreds / thousands of years, cartographers and mathematicians have come up with different methods to map the curved surface of the earth to a flat plane. The main problem is that you cannot do this perfectly, (Theorema Egregium). The shape, area, distances and directions of the surface cannot be represented properly at the same time on a map.


Shape: If a map preserves shape, then feature outlines (like country boundaries or the coast lines) look the same on the map as they do on the earth. A map that preserves shape is conformal. The amount of distortion, however, is regular along some lines in the map. For example, features lying on the 20th parallel are equally distorted, features on the 40th parallel are equally distorted (but differently from those on the 20th parallel), and so on. The Mercator projection is one of the most famous and well-used shape-preserving maps:


Area: If a map preserves area, then the size of a feature on a map is the same relative to its size on the earth. For example, on an equal-area world map, Spain takes up the same percentage of map space that the actual Spain takes up on the earth. In an equal-area map, the shapes of most features are distorted. No map can preserve both shape and area for the whole world, although some come close over sizeable regions. Sinusoidal projection is an area-preserving projection:


Distance: If a line from a to b on a map is the same distance (accounting for scale) that it is on the earth, then the map line has true scale. No map has true scale everywhere, but most maps have at least one or two lines of true scale. For instance, in the Casini projection, the distances perpendicular to central meridian are preserved:


Direction: Direction, or azimuth, is measured in degrees of angle from north. On the earth, this means that the direction from a to b is the angle between the meridian on which a lies and the great circle arc connecting a to b. If the azimuth value from a to b is the same on a map as on the earth, then the map preserves direction from a to b. No map has true direction everywhere.

Finding the compromise: Most of the maps used are compromise solutions, partially preserving some of the above mentioned properties. The most used one (by far) is the one you can find in Google Maps, OpenStreetMaps etc. called Web Mercator, Google Web Mercator, WGS 84 Web Mercator or WGS 84/Pseudo-Mercator. It is a variation of the Mercator projection, ignoring the ellipticity of Earth for faster computation:


The Winkel tripel projection. “Triple” stands for trying to minimize errors in three properties at the same time: area, direction, and distance. The Winkel tripel is the arithmetic mean of different projections (equi-rectangular, area and shape preserving)


There is even a whole family called Myriahedral projections. These consider the earth *sphere* to be a polyhedron with a very large number of faces, a “myriahedron”. This myriahedron is cut open into small pieces and unfolded. The resulting maps have a large number of subareas that are (almost) conformal and that (almost) conserve areas. The location of the map interruptions can be “selected” (oftenly using sea areas etc)

7 8









Some ingenious representations mix the approach from Myriahedral projections and other property-preserving projections. e.g. the Goode Homolosineprojection:


All the previous projections provoke distorsion. There is no perfect projection. In the nineteenth century, Nicolas Auguste Tissot developed a simple method for analysing map-projection distortion. An infinitely small circle on the earth’s surface will be projected as an infinitely small ellipse on any given map projection. The resulting ellipse of distortion, or “indicatrix”, shows the amount and type of distortion at the location of the ellipse. Some examples for the most-used projections are given below.


If all the previous was not enough, it just leaves the door open to other projections that represent additional variables in maps, such as socio-demographic or technical indicators.

A map with country size proportional to population:


Proportional to number of immigrants:


Proportional to the number of tourists (Spain the biggest country in the world!):


Or even proportional to the total number of flights (this is one of my favourites!):


Some references and further reading on the topic:

INXmas greetings, 2017

We have had lots of fun innovating in 2016, so we are eager for a 2017 full of harder technical and scientific challenges, new research threads and complex innovation.

All the Innaxis team wish you a Merry Xmas break -including some fun and rest-  and a superb 2017!

ho ho ho!!!


ComplexityCosts holds Close-Out Meeting

After more than four years of intensive research the SESAR WP-E project ComplexityCosts has finally concluded. Project partners from the University of Westminster and Innaxis gathered with experts at the EUROCONTROL Experimental Centre in Brétigny-sur-Orge, France in early October to discuss the project results and close the research activities.

The ComplexityCosts study focused on the trade-offs between several disturbances and mechanisms from a passenger and stakeholder’s costs perspective. A major highlight of the project was the concept of resilience costs and further identifying a metric to effectively measure it.

The research continues on within the Horizon2020 DATASET2050 and SESAR LTER Vista projects, so stay tuned for further developments on mobility research.

EU Door-to-Door Mobility Workshop: 12th July 2016

We’re pleased to host and coordinate the first workshop examining EU door-to-door mobility.
An outline of sessions can be found below (abstracts are here).

Date: 12th July 2016. 10:30 – 17:00 (approx)

Location: 309 Regent Street, London W1B 2HW University of Westminster, UK

10:00 refreshments on arrival

Welcome and introduction – University of Westminster (PDF)

  • Session 1. Challenges of a data-driven model

The DATASET2050 model

The current state of mobility in EuropeUniversity of Westminster (PDF)
Which journeys are in scope when measuring the 4-hour door-to-door target?
What data sources are available for the current and future models?
Meeting the passenger’s demand: current and futureBauhaus Luftfahrt (PDF)
Challenges ahead: how will we model 2035 and 2050?
Assessing current supply and demand profiles.
Developing a new model for European mobility Innaxis (PDF)
What new metrics (and segmentations) do we need, apart from simply measuring average journey times?
Analytical approach – what metrics are needed?
What is the current status of such journeys – latest progress with the model.

  • Session 2. Further exploring the journey process phase by phase – where are the efficiency gains?

Door-to-kerbKai Nagel, Technical University of Berlin (PDF)
Improved airport accessibility: intermodal mobility; efficiencies of different modes (e.g. better utilisation of road-based modes – fuller cars/taxis; prioritisation schemes); modal shift; integration and passenger confidence.
Kerb-to-gateGenovefa Kefalidou, Horizon 2020 PASSME project (PDF)
Reducing door-to-door airport travel time for passengers in Europe.
Providing passengers with real-time information on predicted demand for airport services.
Improving the airport experience for passengers.
Gate-to-gateSteve Williams, NATS (PDF)
The impact of new SESAR solutions aimed at improving gate-to-gate operations, including free-routing, business trajectories, functional airspace blocks and ATM performance targets.
The role of wider EU policies such as Regulation 261/2004.

  • Session 3. Looking ahead to 2035 and 2050

Futures near and farChristoph Schneider, Munich Airport (PDF)
Evolution of demand – market maturities, new technologies and travel patterns.
From where will the key performance improvements come? – panel discussion (PDF)
Major improvements and barriers. Is the 4-hour target achievable – at what price? What should be the role of regulation and policy?
Close and wrap-upUniversity of Westminster (PDF)

Registration: Attendance is free of charge, however the number of places are limited.
Dynamic conversations and exchanges of views are encouraged at the workshop.

EU Door-to-Door Mobility Workshop – Abstracts

  • Session 1. Challenges of a data-driven model

The current state of mobility in Europe – University of Westminster
The foundations of the DATASET2050 model are described in this presentation, along with some of the corresponding data sources used in its construction. Using mobility, we show roughly how far from the target we are currently in Europe, with optimistic and less optimistic scenarios. We present the order of magnitude of the trip segments and introduce the main problematic. Finally, we have a brief look at how uncertainty is playing a key role right now in transportation with the creation of buffers – pure interplay between supply and demand.

Meeting the passenger’s demand: current and future – Bauhaus Luftfahrt
This presentation illustrates the passenger-centric approach taken within the DATASET2050 project by developing current demand profiles. It elaborates different aspects influencing passenger demand such as age, income, household structure, or technological affinity. Based on the analysis of European data, a range of passenger profiles and respective characteristics are derived. These determine the requirements passengers have during their journey and hence the time spent in different processes. Furthermore, data on European mobility behaviour yields different archetype journeys for these passengers.

Developing a new model for European mobility – Innaxis
The DATASET2050 mobility model is a mathematical framework aiming to represent the European door-to-door transportation network. The model has a stochastic approach inherited from complex networks theory, but is ultimately implemented using data science tools. This presentation will address how journey lengths are estimated as an aggregation of multiple random sub-processes and how decision networks are driven by stochastic supply and demand profiles. Several candidate mobility metrics will also be discussed and how the model can be used, to some extent, to analyse future scenarios.

  • Session 2. Further exploring the journey process phase by phase – where are the efficiency gains?

Door-to-kerb – Prof. Dr. Kai Nagel, Technical University of Berlin
The MATSim (Multi Agent Transport Simulation) project is involved with the microscopic simulation of individual travellers at the regional or even national scale. The approach starts from a synthetic population where real humans are replaced by statistical equivalents, builds full daily schedules for them, and follows them through their day with a special focus on the transport system. The system also allows us to run detailed analysis tasks; for example, investigating the accessibility of households to all kinds of services by all means of transport. Clearly, it would also be possible to follow synthetic persons from home or workplace to an airport, or from airport to workplace or home. This presentation will demonstrate current capabilities and discuss possible extensions to MATSim.

Kerb-to-gate – Dr. Genovefa Kefalidou, Horizon 2020 PASSME project
Understanding passenger, airports and airlines’ needs promptly, transforming them into intelligence and adjusting services based on this intelligence is now even more demanding. PASSME is an EU-Horizon 2020-funded project in which we aim to provide innovations to modern journey challenges while at airports. We work on innovations to enhance passengers’ experiences (including reducing stress), providing real-time personalised information, improving interiors and luggage flow and forecasting passenger flow. We identify that passenger needs intertwine strongly with airport and airline needs, manifesting opportunities to build a relationshipamongst all these stakeholders through the use of mobile, back-end and situated innovations. This relationship demands to be maintained throughout the different airport touch points (e.g. kerb-to-gate) to facilitate and optimise the journey process as knock-on effects are transferred between phases, often causing further delays and dissatisfaction.

Gate-to-gate – Steve Williams, NATS
This presentation considers a selection of SESAR concepts, considering changes from flight plans to business trajectories and from distance-based to time-based spacing, also including extended arrival management horizons and system-wide information management (SWIM). It considers the relevance of SESAR to future transport goals: what could SESAR provide to other transport modes, what are the limitations, and why are the limitations unlikely to change? The importance of air traffic management data accuracy is also discussed, and why data are much more precise once an aircraft has left the ground.

  • Session 3. Looking ahead to 2035 and 2050

Futures near and far – Christoph Schneider, Munich Airport
There are many potentially disrupting developments that add a lot of uncertainty when it comes to predicting mobility in 2035. The ACARE mobility vision does not contradict any of these trends. The European aviation market may appear to mature wrt growth rates, but absolute growth will most likely still be huge. Airport capacity is set to be the limiting factor with little hope of being coped with. Munich Airport is very actively engaged in activities to increase capacity, improve intermodality and enhance passenger experience by innovative digital products – these areas are common denominators for mobility in 2035.

Resilience2050. Workshop 2015, Bologne (SIDS)

The final project workshop took place in Bologna, Italy, 30th November 2015 in the afternoon, (14:00-18:00) attached to the SESAR Innovation Days, that officially started the following day in the morning.
You can now download the presentations of the workshop by just clicking on the links below.

Resilience2050 Final Workshop

13:30-14:00 Registration
14:00-14:15 Welcome and introduction Marc Bourgois, Eurocontrol, and David Perez, Innaxis
14:15-14:30 Resilience concepts and approach Hector Ureta, Innaxis
14:30-15:10 Resilience in the ATM socio-technical system: Key roles of humans balancing ATM KPA’s while dealing with disturbances Sybert Stroeve, NLR
15:10-15:30 Data-driven techniques to improve ATM resilience understanding Ernestina Menasalvas, UPM
15:30-16:00 Break
16:00-16:30 The resilience metric and efficiency model Samuel Cristobal, Innaxis
16:30-16:50 Future air traffic in Resilience2050, an operational view Cengiz Pasaoglu, DHMI
16:50-17:20 Data Driven Stochastic Modelling of European Air Traffic for Efficiency Assessment and Resilience N. Kemal Ure, ITU
17:20-17:30 Future applications and opportunities David Perez, Innaxis
17:30-18:00 Open debate All
18:00 Closure


Madrid, 25th to 27th of November, 2013

SESAR Long-term and Innovative Research, Work Package E, supports research activities that are not currently part of the ‘mainstream’ SESAR development work packages. The SESAR Innovation Days are the main forums for dissemination of WP-E results and for interaction with the wider ATM research community and industry representatives.

The fourth SESAR Innovation Days will take place in Madrid, Spain, from 25th to 27th November 2014. The event will be hosted by the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.

Unlike any other scientific event in ATM research, the SESAR Innovation Days focus explicitly on long-term and innovative research. As well as presenting results of WP-E Networks, Projects and PhDs, the event also seeks contributions from the ATM research community through an open call. The submission deadline is 22nd September and notification of acceptance will be made by 23rd October. Download the Call for Contributions here

Further information on the event will be progressively available at:

For all enquiries please contact

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